The Effectiveness of Emotion Schema Therapy on Rumination and the Extreme Accountability of Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Document Type : Research Paper


1 M.Sc., Psychology, Hekmat Razavi Institute of Higher Education, Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

2 PhD, Counseling, Islamic Azad University, Bojnourd Branch, Bojnourd, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Khayyam University, Mashhad, Iran.

4 M.Sc., School Counseling, Islamic Azad University, Quchan Branch, Quchan, Iran.


Due to the prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, there are some measures to be taken to improve the symptoms. The purpose of the present research was to determine the effectiveness of emotion schema therapy on rumination and the extreme accountability of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. It was semi-experimental research with pre-test, post-test, and follow-up stage. The population of the study included people with obsessive-compulsive disorder who referred to the Artiman counseling center of Mashhad in 2019. A number of 16 individuals were selected by available sampling and they were divided randomly into two experimental and control groups. The Ruminant Response Style Questionnaire and California Accountability Scale were used to collect data. The results of analysis of variance with repeated measures showed that emotion schema therapy effects on reducing rumination and extreme accountability of individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Emotional schema therapy can be effective in reducing mental rumination and extreme accountability of people with obsessive-compulsive disorder. It is suggested that by using these variables by medical centers, the organizations can be taken to take effective steps to improve the mental health of individuals


Main Subjects

Abedi Shargh, N., Ahovan, M., Doostian, Y., Aazami, Y. and Hoosaini, S. (2017). The effectiveness of emotional schema therapy on clinical symptom and emotional schemas in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Clinical Psychology Studies7(26): 149-163(Text in Persian).
Abramowitz, J. S. (2018). Getting over OCD: A 10-step workbook for taking back your life. Guilford Publications. ‏
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5). American Psychiatric Pub.‏
Basile, B., Luppino, O. I., Mancini, F. and Tenore, K. (2018). A theoretical integration of schema therapy and cognitive therapy in OCD treatment: experiential techniques and cognitive-based interventions in action (Part III). Psychology9(09): 2296.‏
Conley, S. L. and Wu, K. D. (2018). Experimental modification of dysfunctional interpretations in individuals with contamination concerns. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 59(1) 56-64.‏
Emam Zamani, Z., Mashhadi, A. and Sepehri Shamloo, Z. (2019). The effectiveness of group therapy based on emotional schema therapy on anxiety and emotional schemas on women with generalized anxiety disorder. Research in Clinical Psychology and Counseling9(1), 5-24.‏
Fergus, T. A. and Wu, K. D. (2010). Do symptoms of generalized anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder share cognitive processes? Cognitive Therapy and Research34(2):168-176.‏
Ghadampour, E., Hosseini Ramaghani, N., Moradi, S., Rod, M. G. and Alipour, K. (2018). Effectiveness of emotional schema therapy on decrease of post-event rumination and cognitive avoidance in people with clinical symptoms of social anxiety. The Horizon of Medical Sciences24(2):111-118(Text in Persian).
Ghassemzadeh, H., Mojtabai, R., Khamseh, A., Ebrahimkhani, N., Issazadegan, A. A. and Saif-Nobakht, Z. (2002). Symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder in a sample of Iranian patients. International Journal of Social Psychiatry48(1):20-28.‏
Hodgson, R. J. and Rachman, S. (1977). Obsessional-compulsive complaints. Behaviour Research and Therapy,15(5):389-395.‏
Izadi, F. Ashrafi, E. and Fathi Ashtiani, A. (2019). The structural pattern of the relationship between negative emotional schemas and somatic symptoms by mediating alexithymia and emotional expressiveness. Journal of Research in Behavioural Sciences,16 (3):311-323(Text in Persian).
Leahy, R. L. (2002). A model of emotional schemas. Cognitive and behavioral practice9(3):177-190.‏
Leahy, R. L. (2016). Emotional schema therapy: a meta‚Äźexperiential model. Australian Psychologist51(2):82-88.‏
Leahy, R. L. (2018). Emotion Schemas Therapy: Distinctive Features, Routledge.
Leahy, R. L., Tirch, D. and Napolitano, L. A. (2011). Emotion regulation in psychotherapy: A practitioner's guide.Guilford press.‏
Mancini, F. (Ed.). (2018). The Obsessive Mind: Understanding and Treating Obsessive-compulsive Disorder. Routledge. ‏
Mantz, S. C. and Abbott, M. J. (2017). The relationship between responsibility beliefs and symptoms and processes in obsessive compulsive disorder: A systematic review. Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders14(1):13-26.‏
Mathes, B. M., Morabito, D. M. and Schmidt, N. B. (2019). Epidemiological and clinical gender differences in OCD. Current Psychiatry Reports21(5):1-36.‏
Mohammadkhani, S., Purmand, N. S. and Hassanabadi, H. (2013). An empirical test of a metacognitive model of rumination and depression in non-clinical population.Modern Psychological Research, 8(30):183-204(Text in Persian).
Mohammadkhani, S., Purmand, N. S. and Hassanabadi, H. (2013). An empirical test of a metacognitive model of rumination and depression in non-clinical population. Modern Psychological Research8(30):183-204(Text in Persian).
Morvaridi, M., Mashhadi, A., Shamloo, Z. S. and Leahy, R. L. (2019). The effectiveness of group emotional schema therapy on emotional regulation and social anxiety symptoms. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy12(1):16-24.‏
Nayebaghayee, A., Aleyasin, S. A., Heidari, H. and Davoodi, H. (2019). Exposure and response prevention therapy on inflated sense of responsibility, and intolerance of uncertainty, in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder. Middle Eastern Journal of Disability Studies, 9(2):1-1(Text in Persian).
Nolen-Hoeksema, S. and Morrow, J. (1991). A prospective study of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster: the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,61(1):115.‏
Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Wisco, B. E. and Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on Psychological Science3(5):400-424.‏
Novara, C., Pastore, M., Ghisi, M., Sica, C., Sanavio, E. and McKay, D. (2011). Longitudinal aspects of obsessive compulsive cognitions in a non-clinical sample: a five-year follow-up study. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 42(3):317-324.‏
Papageorgiou, C. and Wells, A. (Eds.). (2004). Depressive rumination: Nature, theory and treatment. John Wiley & Sons.‏
Pugh, K., Luzon, O. and Ellett, L. (2018). Responsibility beliefs and persecutory delusions. Psychiatry Research, 259, 340-344.‏
Rezaei, M., Ghadampur, E. and Kazemi, R. (2016). Effectiveness of emotional schema therapy on rumination and severity of depression in patients with major depressive disorder. ‏  Journal of Clinical Psychology, 7(4): 45-58(Text in Persian).
Taylor, S. F. and Liberzon, I. (2007). Neural correlates of emotion regulation in psychopathology. Trends in Cognitive Sciences11(10):413-418.‏
 Treynor, W., Gonzalez, R. and Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2003). Rumination reconsidered: A psychometric analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research27(3):247-259.‏
  Wolters, L. H., Prins, P. J., Garst, G. J. A., Hogendoorn, S. M., Boer, F., Vervoort, L. and de Haan, E. (2019). Mediating mechanisms in cognitive behavioral therapy for childhood OCD: The role of dysfunctional beliefs. Child Psychiatry & Human Development50(2):173-185.‏
 Zilhão, N. R., Abdellaoui, A., Smit, D. J. A., Cath, D. C., Hottenga, J. J. and Boomsma, D. I. (2018). Poly - genic prediction of obsessive compulsive symptoms. Molecular Psychiatry, 23:168-9.‏  DOI: 10.1038/mp.2017.248